Organizational health: A fast track to performance improvement (2023)


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The central idea underlyingour organizational work for the past decade has been that the best way to run a business is to balance short-term performance and long-term health.

Healthy companies, we know, dramatically outperform their peers. The proof is strong—the top quartile of publicly traded companies in McKinsey’sOrganizational Health Index (OHI) delivers roughly three times the returns to shareholders as those in the bottom quartile—so strong, indeed, that we’ve almost come to take it for granted.

But now we see new, longitudinal evidence that redoubles our conviction. Companies that work on their health, we’ve found, not only achieve measurable improvements in their organizational well-being but demonstrate tangible performance gains in as little as 6 to 12 months. This holds true for companies across sectors and regions, as well as in contexts ranging from turnarounds to good-to-great initiatives.

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Our recommendation is clear: start managing your organizational health as rigorously as you do your P&L, providing pathways for leaders at all levels to take part and embedding and measuring the new ways of working.

Health and the bottom line

We think of organizational health as more than just culture or employee engagement. It’s the organization’s ability to align around a common vision, execute against that vision effectively, and renew itself through innovation and creative thinking. Put another way, health is how the ship is run, no matter who is at the helm and what waves rock the vessel.

The case for health

Over the past ten years, we’ve monitored the health of more than 1,500 companies across 100 countries. We do this by aggregating the views of their employees and managers (more than four million to date) on management practices that drive nine key organizational dimensions—or “outcomes,” as we call them. We assign scores to each practice and outcome, allowing a company to see how it compares to others in the database.

We’ve long seen a strong, static correlation between health and financial performance. But our latest research is more dynamic: it highlights the potential for the vast majority of companies to improve their health and how this can correspond with enhanced performance. Our findings include the following:

  • Almost all companies perform better if they improve their health. Around 80 percent of companies that took concrete actions on health saw an improvement, with a median six-point increase in their overall health (Exhibit 1). The majority of these companies moved up an entire quartile against all other companies in our database. Over the same period that the companies in our sample were making changes to their health, their earnings1 and total returns to shareholders (TRS) were also increasing disproportionately—by 18 percent and 10 percent, respectively (against an average 7 percent increase in earnings and an average 9 percent increase in TRS for those companies in the S&P 500).
  • The unfit are the most likely to make the biggest health advances. After working on their health, companies in the bottom quartile saw a 9-point health improvement, with notably strong improvements in the company direction (+17 points) and innovation and learning (+14 points) outcomes. This group of “health workers” made progress across every outcome.
  • Those at the top achieve the biggest financial rewards. Companies whose health-improvement efforts took them from the second quartile of the OHI to the top quartile recorded the biggest financial-performance boost, a clear sign that working on health is an important factor in going from “good” to “great.”
Organizational health: A fast track to performance improvement (1)

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Could the causality run the other way? In other words, when companies improve their financial performance, might their people align, execute, and renew better and therefore be more likely to identify healthy changes in the characteristics of their organizations? In theory, yes. In practice, though, we’ve seen the opposite, over and over again. Consider, for example, the experience of a European entertainment company: Over the past three and a half years, it’s moved from the third quartile of the OHI to the top decile. Financial performance has improved dramatically during that period as well (its market share is up 7 percent, customer volume is up 15 percent, and EBITDA is up 85 percent). But when the company was acquired recently by a larger competitor, it was the improvement in health that particularly stood out. The acquirer’s CEO said that, in his mind, organizational health accounted for at least 10 percent of the entertainment company’s value. Health, in short, isn’t some survey artifact; it’s something you can see and feel when you’re inside a healthy company and a prerequisite for sustained performance.

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Speed and rigor

Given all the data and practical experience that supports working on health, companies’ obsession with the P&L alone continues to puzzle us. It’s right that leaders manage their P&L meticulously, but why not do the same for their health? In fact, why not measure health frequently throughout the year, since it’s a leading indicator of performance, whereas financial results are a lagging one? Similarly, why do the vast majority of employee-performance dialogues focus on progress against financial targets, and not on whether behavior is contributing to organizational health?

In private conversations, executives often confess to being quite torn on this issue. They of course want a healthy organization, but they worry about how long it will take to realize tangible benefits from efforts to improve health and about distracting people from other mission-critical priorities. Our experience suggests that these concerns are misplaced. Just as anyone can compete in a 5K race if he or she trains properly, so too can companies be conditioned to improve their health in a short period of time—and those improvements can reinforce those mission-critical priorities.

The key to speed is a rigorous approach. This starts with making the quest for organizational health an integral part of forward-looking leadership: senior leaders need to consider themselves architects, not passive bystanders. Then it means integrating health into monthly and quarterly performance reviews, with data to show how both are trending versus targets. Supporting priorities include tying financial incentives to accomplishing health goals; creating and holding accountable a health team dedicated to embedding the right behaviors in the organization; and weaving health into the performance initiatives already under way.

A focused approach to achieving organizational health quickly

So how do you make health gains quickly? In our experience, there are four areas forward-looking leaders must invest in to build a healthy, performance-driven organization (besides, of course, ensuring that they are fully aligned on the business strategy; strategic and organizational misalignment are a surefire path to poor health and general operating dysfunction). The first, most important step is choosing the performance culture—or what we call the “recipe”—that will best drive their organization’s performance. Then it’s about moving to adopt that recipe as quickly as possible, addressing the mind-sets that will drive new forms of behavior, building a committed team of people at all levels to get involved, and, finally, developing fast feedback loops to monitor progress and course correct if necessary. These actions will help companies target resources on the right priorities, move swiftly, and make the new habits stick.

Pick a health recipe

It’s clear that there is no such thing as a single winning performance culture. But based on our OHI analysis, we have identified four combinations of practices (or “recipes”) that, when applied together, drive superior health—and quickly. We call these four the Leadership Factory (organizations that drive performance by developing and deploying strong leaders, supporting them through coaching, formal training, and the right growth opportunities); the Continuous Improvement Engine (organizations that gain their competitive edge by involving all employees in driving performance and innovation, gathering insights and sharing knowledge); the Talent and Knowledge Core (organizations that accelerate their performance by attracting and inspiring top talent); and the Market Shaper (organizations that get ahead through innovating at all levels and using their deep understanding of customers and competitors to implement those innovations).

They all sound pretty good, right? The reality is, though, that organizations can’t do all of them, which is why a focus on one of them will lead to better and speedier results. Our research shows that when organizations are closely aligned to any one of these four recipes, they are six times more likely to enjoy top-quartile health than companies with weak alignment or diffuse efforts (Exhibit 2). Achieving such alignment requires focus on a small set of organizational-health practices (usually no more than five to ten) that work in concert with each other. Contrast that with what happens more commonly: leaders in various parts of the business copy different external “best practices” across myriad management disciplines. This approach diffuses people’s efforts, can easily result in conflicting approaches, and hinders development of the sort of common performance culture that connects employees regardless of where they sit.

Organizational health: A fast track to performance improvement (2)
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A family-owned Asian conglomerate faced this very challenge: People across the organization employed “best practices” from multiple sources and were adapting them in different ways. As the conglomerate’s leaders sought to change its conservative, risk-averse culture to a more innovative and entrepreneurial one, they began placing greater emphasis on organizational health and chose the Continuous Improvement Engine (CIE) recipe to govern their health strategy. Three themes were central to that strategy: improving knowledge sharing across business units, developing innovation and entrepreneurship, and improving employee motivation. Heads of HR across the business units drove the subsequent learning initiatives under the CEO’s sponsorship, launching a corporate academy on innovation, promoting regional innovation conferences, and providing extrinsic motivators such as nontraditional career paths for innovators and entrepreneurs. This consistent and coherent approach led to a nine-point improvement in health.

Get to the heart of the mind-sets

Don’t be fooled by the symptom; understand the cause. To create rapid and lasting progress on the set of practices that will drive health, companies have toidentify and address the deep-rooted mind-sets influencing employee behavior and then define new ones to replace them.

When seeking to understand and address these mind-sets, we like to use the image of an iceberg popularized by MIT academics Otto Scharmer and Katrin Kaufer.2 Above the surface (the tip of the iceberg) is the visible behavior repeated and reinforced by the organization every day. Under the surface are employees’ thoughts and feelings (both conscious and unconscious); their values and beliefs (the things that are important to them); and their underlying needs, including their fears and the threats to their identity. These below-the-surface factors have to be understood and addressed before shifts in behavior and culture can be realized to drive organizational health.

Once a company has identified the mind-set or mind-sets it wants to instill in employees, it needs a set of actions to change the working environment and drive adherence. Here, McKinsey’s long-establishedinfluence model defines practical interventions that help structure a way forward. Is there a clear change story to foster an understanding of why a new approach is required? What incentives should be introduced to reinforce that new approach? Are training programs required to improve the skills of people in the organization? Are leaders across the business role modeling the appropriate mind-sets? Being clear on these four dimensions is likely to be critical to the long-term success of a program for improving organizational health.

A global equipment manufacturer was under pressure from cost-competitive entrants, challenging its long run of dominance in a specialized, capital-intensive industry. With the development costs of its most recently released product coming in at several times its original budget, the company needed to drive down costs to maintain its market position. Leaders had been trying to address this problem, but their lack of results only led them to more frustration.

The breakthrough came when, supported by the OHI, they realized there were deeply rooted mind-sets across the organization that were holding it back. The leadership team ultimately identified five of these mind-sets—the most important of which was how, historically, the organization had prioritized on-time delivery and product performance, often at the expense of product cost. In practice, engineers felt it was their job to design incredible products, with cost being an output rather than an input. To shift this thinking, the leaders set out to demonstrate that adding value for customers, as well as efficient processes, were just as important as on-time delivery and product performance. They launched a number of highly visible initiatives that gave them the opportunity to role model the appropriate new behavior and highlight the rewards associated with it, then rolled the initiatives out across key parts of the organization—especially in engineering, operations, and supply-chain management.

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The company also found simple and low-cost ways to embed the new mind-sets. One of these included giving all employees who attended a health town hall or participated in an initiative a lanyard with a red and green card. The red card shared the company’s performance-limiting mind-sets, while the green card shared the performance-accelerating ones it sought to embed. This simple reinforcement made it quickly obvious who had the lanyards and who did not, providing a constant signal for all employees to take part in the program. It also served as a vehicle for providing feedback: in initiative team meetings, employees called out “red” behaviors by holding up their red card, allowing everyone to pause and colleagues to reset their approach. Employees reinforced “green” behavior, too, thereby encouraging others that they were on the right track. Thanks to these steps, the company’s current pipeline of products is on track to meet its delivery, performance, and cost targets.

Engage employees at all levels

It requires strong leadership and role modeling for change to take hold quickly. But change is not a top-down exercise. Health improvement happens quickly and sustainably when you drive it top to bottom, bottom to top, and side to side. This is best done by engaging a committed community or network of formal and informal influencers.

Influencers exist at all levels of an organization, ranging from assistants to middle managers. Such people often have an oversized impact on motivating colleagues. They may be rising stars or simply well-liked and enthusiastic team players with a positive attitude. And while in many cases they are not immediately visible to leaders, they can be unearthed via simple survey-based technology that asks employees to identify people who meet the characteristics of an influencer. Companies that map them—the exercise should take no more than one to two weeks—are often surprised by how deep many of these people are within the organization. Such influencers reinforce leadership’s case for change, role model the new mind-sets, collect feedback on what’s going well and what’s not, and excite and engage the front line.

An electronics company in Europe successfully unleashed the power of a group of influencers as part of its drive to become more innovative and customer focused. Employees had been generally upbeat about the transformation, but the company noted that attitudes didn’t change and leaders were struggling to translate their vision into new forms of behavior. Senior leaders therefore identified a minimum of two people in each location or function who were acknowledged and respected by their peers, regardless of their level in the hierarchy, and invited them to help communicate the progress of the transformation, to suggest ways to intervene locally, and to act as role models. They assigned a project manager to coordinate this network of change agents, keeping in touch and checking in with them to facilitate knowledge sharing. Thanks to these influencers’ interventions—sharing information with the front line, taking time to talk to customers and feeding the information back to senior leaders, and calling out colleagues who did not adopt the desired attitudes—substantial behavioral changes began to take hold quickly.

Get ‘on the pulse’

Organizational health is organic, and, like the human body, it evolves over time. If health is to be nurtured and improved quickly, it needs to be monitored and measured regularly. The days of conducting a survey and then waiting 12 months to remeasure are gone. This “on the pulse” measuring strategy, which requires fast feedback loops, pinpoints where course corrections are needed. Simple technology tools that put out one question a day provide real-time measurement while reducing survey fatigue. Weekly health huddles with teams offer instant feedback. And integral performance and health reviews reveal how an organization’s health is evolving in reaction to the actions taken. Leaders, as architects of the effort to improve organizational health, can then make changes to ensure that the new mind-sets are taking hold. High-performing organizations require leaders who can manage performance and health in concert.

A high-performing European telecom company embarked on a digital transformation only to discover that its highly directive and execution-oriented management approach (a profile that had served it well for decades) was getting in the way of rapid renewal. It was at the bottom of the class in health, according to the OHI, with eight out of nine outcomes in the third or fourth quartile. Recognizing that the company had to be more agile if it was to respond to the industry shifts and technology disruptions, the company’s leaders focused initially on four practices aimed at increasing employee motivation and giving the company a new performance edge: rewards and recognition, consequence management, role clarity, and personal ownership.

After three months of using the survey technique of one question a day, the company found that it was making progress across all practices except rewards and recognition. Such a fast feedback loop enabled the team to intervene quickly, celebrate the successes, and revisit its approach to rewards and recognition. As a result, leaders combined their internal learnings with external best practices and redefined their interventions to improve the ways in which they rewarded and recognized high-performing teams and individuals.

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A global electronics company took a different approach, introducing a simple survey of no more than ten pertinent questions to check whether critical new practices—such as giving and asking for feedback—were being embedded. The responses, which were shared with and discussed by all the teams, showed which teams were taking the effort seriously. The results of the survey reinforced the right behaviors until they became routine.

Companies often tell us that, while organizational health sounds like a great idea, it doesn’t feel like a necessity to achieving their short-term goals. They also worry that it’s going to be too much work. Both reactions are misguided. Far from being a distraction, a focused health-improvement plan should actually help companies achieve their short-term goals. And it will not be an added burden—in most cases, working healthy is doing what you’re already doing but doing it differently. It’s about redefining how to connect, engage, and communicate with employees. It’s about sharing a company’s vision and mission in a way that inspires employees to act in its best interests. Above all, it’s about adopting a more innovative and effective style of leading, executing, and innovating. Working on health works, and it works quickly.


Why is organizational health so important? ›

Organizational health determines a company's ability to develop, communicate, and follow a common business strategy by maintaining a highly engaged workforce. Organizational health is not only how your teams work towards a common goal, but also how they can cope with organizational change.

How can organizational health be improved? ›

Improving Teamwork Is Central to Organizational Health
  1. Focusing on Achieving Collective Results. Why do we need teams in the first place? ...
  2. Holding One Another Accountable. ...
  3. Committing to Decisions. ...
  4. Engaging in Conflict Around Ideas. ...
  5. Building Trust With One Another.

How do you measure organizational health? ›

To measure the health of your organization you can start by taking an inventory of your organizations problems. You will need the input of many members of your management team, including a few individuals from the lower levels, where the work gets done. Often they have the best perspective on what the real issues are.

What is Mckinsey Ohi? ›

The Organizational Health Index solution measures and tracks the organizational elements that drive performance. It provides a simple but powerful road map for leaders and managers to improve organizational health.

How is human organization influenced to improve health? ›

An organizational culture that supports health is likely to adopt policies, procedures, and priorities that facilitate the healthy behaviors of employees; enhance employee health by reducing environmental risk factors; facilitate healthy behavior on the part of clients, customers, or members; and facilitate linkages to ...

What are the characteristics of an effective and healthy organization? ›

A truly healthy organization is one which “strategically integrates employee well-being into its business objectives and reinforces it through established practices on leadership support, learning culture, healthy job quality, and people friendly HRM practices.”

What is meant by organizational effectiveness? ›

Organizational effectiveness refers to how an organization has achieved full self-awareness due in part to: Leaders setting well-defined goals for employees and outlining ways to efficiently execute those goals. Management implementing clear decision-making processes and communication pipelines.

What is the meaning occupational health? ›

Occupational health is an area of work in public health to promote and maintain highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

What is corporate health and character? ›

Definition of a Healthy Corporate Culture

We define a healthy corporate culture as one in which the corporate values and behaviors are consistently lived across an organization. In general, all organizations strive to be healthy, and people want to work in a healthy corporate culture.

What makes an organization healthy McKinsey? ›

We like to say that organizational health is composed of three things. One is how well the organization aligns around a common strategy. Two, how the strategy then translates down into the work environment—how well the organization executes against its strategy and its ambition.

What is organizational health policy? ›

Keller & Price define organizational health as “the ability of an organization to align, execute, and renew itself faster than the competition to sustain exceptional performance over time”. These are not hippy new-age management philosophies.

What is a health index score? ›

The BCBS Health Index measures the impact of health conditions by subtracting a population's Health Index score from the optimum health score of 100. For example, if a population has a Health Index score of 90 (meaning it is living at 90% of its optimal health) , the impact of health conditions is 10% (or 100 – 90).

What is an Organisational health check? ›

The OHC provides a rapid, benchmarked assessment at the organisational level or the team level. It captures an accurate snapshot of how well your structures, operating model, culture, systems and processes are aligned to your organisational strategy and purpose.

How is organizational culture diagnosed? ›

An effective way to diagnose an organization's culture is to ask its members to discuss openly what has been undiscussable and to write out what previously was unwritten. I have done this activity many times with a variety of organizations.

What are the approaches of change management? ›

The best change management models and methodologies
  • Lewin's change management model.
  • The McKinsey 7-S model.
  • Kotter's change management theory.
  • ADKAR change management model.
  • Nudge theory.
  • Bridges transition model.
  • Kübler-Ross change management framework.
  • The Satir change management methodology.
12 May 2020

What is positive impact of organization? ›

Positive impact is defined by products and services that are created with the purpose of solving societal problems. It reflects the shift from reducing an organization's negative footprint to achieving a significant net positive impact on society and the planet.

How are professional organizations promoting quality improvement in health care? ›

Organisations can use various levers and processes to translate external inputs (such as policy and regulatory incentives) and internal inputs (such as local assurance systems providing data on performance and capacity) to support quality improvement.

How can an organization improve on their support to the community? ›

Donate. Donations come in many forms. You can choose to donate funds, sponsor a youth sports team, or donate graphic design, photos or website services to a nonprofit. You could also support other local businesses by purchasing products, pulling together a gift basket and doing a giveaway on your social channels.

What are the five signs of a good organization? ›

  • Effective Sharing of Goals. A healthy organization shares its business goals with employees at every level of the organization. ...
  • Great Teamwork. ...
  • High Employee Morale. ...
  • Offers Training Opportunities. ...
  • Strong Leadership. ...
  • Handles Poor Performance. ...
  • Understands Risks. ...
  • Adapts to Opportunities and Changes.

What makes a good organizational structure? ›

A good organizational structure facilitates achievement of the objective of every individual through proper coordination of all activities. Reduces the overall conflicts between the individuals and team members. It removes duplication and overlapping of work. It decreases the likelihood of runarounds.

What does a healthy organizational culture look like? ›

First, a healthy culture encourages employees to understand the organization's vision and mission. Workers tend to be so ingrained in their daily tasks that they sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture. Reminding them of the company's values and goals can boost their motivation and productivity.

What makes an organization healthy Mckinsey? ›

We like to say that organizational health is composed of three things. One is how well the organization aligns around a common strategy. Two, how the strategy then translates down into the work environment—how well the organization executes against its strategy and its ambition.

What is Organisational health and wellness? ›

Employee and organisational wellness is about empowering employees to take responsibility for their wellbeing by introducing health education, wellness policies and promoting behaviours that improve physical and mental health.

What is organizational health policy? ›

Keller & Price define organizational health as “the ability of an organization to align, execute, and renew itself faster than the competition to sustain exceptional performance over time”. These are not hippy new-age management philosophies.

What is organizational well being? ›

Organizational wellbeing refers to a company's ability to create and maintain a culture where employees can fulfill their potential and the company can profitably fulfill its purpose.

What is meant by organizational effectiveness? ›

Organizational effectiveness refers to how an organization has achieved full self-awareness due in part to: Leaders setting well-defined goals for employees and outlining ways to efficiently execute those goals. Management implementing clear decision-making processes and communication pipelines.

What makes a good organization? ›

Summary. Effective organizations create results, and to be fully effective, nonprofits must exhibit strengths in five core organizational areas—leadership, decision making and structure, people, work processes and systems, and culture.

What is corporate health and character? ›

Definition of a Healthy Corporate Culture

We define a healthy corporate culture as one in which the corporate values and behaviors are consistently lived across an organization. In general, all organizations strive to be healthy, and people want to work in a healthy corporate culture.

What are the three most important factors that influence wellness at work? ›

7 Key Factors for Workplace Well-Being
  • Autonomy. Micromanaging bosses are not only bad for morale, but they're also likely to lead to job dissatisfaction. ...
  • Stress management frameworks. ...
  • Inclusionary culture. ...
  • Physical comfort and safety. ...
  • Workspace design. ...
  • Collaborative competition. ...
  • Remote access.
28 Jun 2016

What is the importance of employee wellbeing? ›

Workers well-being is a key factor in determining an organisation's long-term effectiveness. Many studies show a direct link between productivity levels and the general health and well-being of the workforce.

Who is responsible for organizational health? ›

Employers, Managers, and Individual Responsibility

As an employer, it's your job to provide a workplace reasonably free of recognized hazards and comply with health and safety regulations in doing so. It's your employees' job to comply with occupational health and safety standards applicable to their own conduct.

What is the purpose of organizational policies in healthcare? ›

Healthcare policy is important because it helps establish guidelines that benefit patients, healthcare organizations, and our healthcare system. Having protocols in place can help prevent human error and poor communication around medical decisions.

What is the meaning occupational health? ›

Occupational health is an area of work in public health to promote and maintain highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

What is organizational care? ›

New research from the Limeade Institute shows that organizational care is related to engagement, well-being, inclusion, intent to stay and more. Research Overview. To the employee, organizational support is all about how a company expresses care — how the employer looks after and provides for the needs of employees.

What are the three steps to implementing the well-being leadership model? ›

Bringing Organizational Well-Being to Life
  1. Step 1: Commit Wholeheartedly. “There is a difference between interest and commitment. ...
  2. Step 2: Lay the Capability Groundwork. ...
  3. Step 3: Encourage Active Staff Participation.
12 Aug 2020

Why companies should be concerned about well-being? ›

Not only will it improve the overall staff productivity, it will also create a more positive culture for all to enjoy. Looking after your employees' wellbeing could also save the company money in the long run by avoiding early retirements, insurance claims or simply the costs associated to high staff turnover.


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